Albert Einstein said: “Not everything that counts can be counted, and not everything that can be counted counts.” As marketers, we often focus heavily on metrics. In a perfect world, we would be able to track every sale to a specific marketing or advertising tactic. Then we would know exactly what works and what doesn’t. While online advertising and lead generation allows unparalleled levels of trackability, it often still doesn’t tell the whole picture. This year, I bought my first Mac. For years, I had been a diehard user of Windows PCs. To this day, I still think that Windows, in general, is easier to use than Macs. So why did I buy one? I didn’t buy my Mac because of any specific TV spot or print ad, though I’ve seen many. I didn’t buy it in one of their stores, though I love their unique retail experience. I didn’t even feel that their website is particularly easy to use, yet that was the only place I wanted to purchase it from. By all traditional metrics, their marketing failed to win me as a customer. Yet, I’m now a completely loyal user of Apple products. Why? Brands are created in the aggregate. And while no singular element of their marketing compelled me to buy a Mac, it was because of all of those things that made me a loyal customer. Not everything has a verifiable ROI. But that doesn’t mean it doesn’t have value.